CSS Journalism & Mass Communication 2018


No. 2. Traditionally, communication theory as a distinct area of media studies has transited through minimum four eras of its development. Explain these eras and their specific characteristics by categorizing the communication theories associated with them. (20)

No. 3. Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann propounded the spiral of Silence Theory in 1974 while examining public opinion as a form of social control, which later emerged as a milestone in public opinion formation research. Discuss it in detail by drawing model of the theory. (20)

No. 4. In international and global communication context, communication and culture are strongly associated with each other. Discuss the nexus in the light of Marxist and Gramsci approaches. (20)

No. 5. Relations between governments and mass media have more often been adversarial in Pakistan. Discuss it in historical perspective as why they have been the way have been. Be precise and critical in your attempt. (20)

No. 6. How would you differentiate between Development Communication and Development Support Communication? Would you support the use of DSC tools and techniques in an increasingly cosmopolitan society? In either case, provide cogent justifications to support your opinion. (20)

No. 7. In developing nations, this impression is gaining momentum that mass media and journalists more often look after their limited objectives with complete disregard to national security when reporting complex social and political issues. This calls for an effective governance of media and their affairs with essential regulations. Don't you think such impression plagues the right of freedom of expression and media? Discuss this in the perspective of contemporary media laws of Pakistan. (20)

No. 8. Briefly explain the following: (5 each) a. Media determinism by Marshall McLuhan b. Cultural industries c. PEMRA Code of Ethics d. Press Information Department (20)