CSS Economics 2008

Q.2. What is meant by the statement that many Developing Countries are subject to “dominance, dependence and vulnerability” in their relations with rich nations? Explain the statement with examples.

Q.3. Why is an understanding of the meaning of development crucial to policy formulation in Developing Nations? Do you think it is possible for a nation to agree on a rough definition of development and orient its strategies for achieving these objectives accordingly? What might be some of the road block or constraints in realizing these development objectives – economic and non-economic?

Q.4. What is meant by “absolute” poverty and the poverty gap? How and why should we be concerned with the measurement of absolute poverty in the Developing World? Explain with examples.

Q.5. It is sometimes asserted that small peasant frames are backward and ignorant because they seem to resist agricultural innovations that could raise farm yields substantially. Does this resistance stem from an inherent “irrationality” on their part or might it be attributable to some other factors often over looked by Western economists? Explain your answer.

Q.6. There appears to be widespread agreement that in those regions where the distribution of land ownership is highly unequal (Latin America and parts of Asia), land reforms is necessary but not sufficient condition for promoting and improving small – scale agriculture. What is meant by this statement and by the concept of land reforms? Give some examples of supportive policy measures that might accompany land reform in the light of experience in Pakistan.

Q.7. How do the trade policies of developed countries affect the ability of less developed countries to benefit from greater participation in the world economy? How do “non trade” domestic economic policies of rich nations affect the expert earnings of Developing Countries? What is meant by “adjustment assistance” and why it is so important to the future of Developing Countries manufactured export prospects? Explain.

Q.8. How important is foreign aid for the economies of the developing world in relation to their other sources of foreign exchange receipts? Explain the various forms development assistance can take and distinguish between bilateral and multilateral assistance. Which do you think is more desirable and why?